All forms of Gaucher disease affect males and females in equal numbers. Gaucher disease type 1 is the most common type, accounting for more than 90 percent of cases. Individuals with Gaucher disease type 1 usually exhibit symptoms during adolescence, but the age of onset ranges from childhood to adulthood. The age of onset for Gaucher disease type 2 is during early infancy. The age of onset of Gaucher disease type 3 varies, but the disorder generally begins during childhood or adolescence.
There are approximately 6,000 individuals with Gaucher disease in the U.S. Gaucher disease is the most common genetic disorder of persons of Ashkenazic Jewish ancestry, where the incidence may be as high as 1 in 600 births. There is no ethnic prevalence associated with Gaucher disease types 2 or 3. However, there is a subtype of Gaucher disease type 3 that occurs with greater frequency in the Norrbotten region of Sweden (Norrbottnian Gaucher disease). The estimated prevalence in the Swedish Norrbotten population is 1 in 50,000.